Metcalfe, located eight miles to the southeast of Thomasville, was founded as a railroad boomtown in 1889. A lumber-and-agriculture based town, Metcalfe expanded around the depot and by 1892 requested Thomas County build a courthouse there for magisterial purposes. While the courthouse was never used for court, and Metcalfe lost its governing charter by the early 1920s, it was a meeting place for the residents of Metcalfe and was the voting location for every election until 2002.
In 2003, the courthouse in severe disrepair was put up for auction by the County. The Historical Society won the bid, and the building was moved to Museum grounds in 2004. It came with its contents, including benches and voting signs and materials.